Malcolm Snead

CSA 142 - HSC 9062
Phone: (323) 442-3178
Fax: (323) 442-2981
mlsnead@usc.edu

Malcolm Snead, D.D.S., Ph.D.

Professor, Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

Division Chair, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

Self-motivated and talented people at all levels (Faculty colleagues, Postdoctoral scholars, Graduate students, Undergraduate students and Primary and Secondary Grade Teachers) with background/interest in biomineralization, gene regulation, protein chemistry, computer modeling, developmental biology are welcome to contact us, tour the lab, and explore the possibility of joining our group. Our lab group meets every Thursday at 1:00 PM in the Small Conference Room at the Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology. Drop Ins are welcome at any time.

  • St. Mary's College, Moraga, CA
    B.S.
    1973
    Biology/Chemistry

  • Loyola University, College of Dental Surgery, Chicago, IL
    D.D.S.
    1977
    Dentistry

  • The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
    Certificate
    1979
    Oral Pathology

  • The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
    Ph.D.
    1981
    Pathology

  • 2012 - Present - Division Chair - Division of Biomedical Sciences, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
  • 1997 - Present - Professor - Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
  • 1992 - 1997 - Associate Professor - Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
  • 1984 - 1992 - Research Assistant Professor & Research Associate Professor - Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
  • 1982 - 1984 - Postdoctoral Trainee, Dr. H.C. Slavkin, Craniofacial Biology - Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
  • 1981 - 1982 - Postdoctoral Trainee, Dr. Savio L.C. Woo - Baylor College of Medicine, Hughes Medical Research Institute, Houston, Texas
  • 1977 - 1981 - Research Associate,Zoller Dental Clinic - The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
  • 2007 - Fulbright Senior Specialist Award, US Embassy (University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa)
  • 1988 - Dana-Farber Computer Resource Center Fellowship
  • 1985 - Research Career Development Award, USPHS, NIH, NIDR
  • 1977 - Walter G. Zoller Fellow, The University of Chicago
  • 1976 - Johnson and Johnson Fellow

Determination and Expression of Amelogenin Gene Products - Grant #5 R01 DE06988

  • Principal Investigator: Malcolm L Snead, D.D.S., Ph.D.
  • Sponsor: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
  • Period: April 1, 1985 to January 31, 2013
  • Goal: The major goals of this project are to test the hypothesis that amelogenin gene regulation is dependent upon a cascade of signals provided during instructive secondary germ layer interaction serving to pattern oral epithelium to the ameloblast phenotype.

Cell and Genetic Approaches to Enamel Biomimetics - Grant #2 R01 DE013045

  • Principal Investigator: Malcolm L. Snead, D.D.S., Ph.D.
  • Sponsor: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
  • Period: August 1, 1998 to May 31, 2015
  • Goal: The major goal of this project is to determine the effects of selected tooth specific proteins on mineral deposition and composition in vitro; using transgenic animals as part of a gain function test, determine the effects of excessive amounts of tuftelin and ameloblastin proteins on tooth biomineralization in vivo.

Nanotechnology Strategies for Growth of Bones and Teeth - Grant #5 R01 DE015920

  • Principal Investigator: Malcolm L. Snead, D.D.S., Ph.D. (Co-Investigator)
  • Sponsor: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
  • Period: July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2011
  • Goal: This research will guide the development of synthetic, nanostructured templates that can be used for enamel or bone regeneration and repair.

Training in Cellular and Molecular Biology - Grant #5 T32 DE07211

  • Principal Investigator: Malcolm L. Snead, D.D.S., Ph.D.
  • Sponsor: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
  • Period: September 30, 1990 to August 31, 2008
  • Goal: The major goal of this project is to support dentist seeking advanced training in biomedical research appropriate to the mission of the NIDCR.

Building the Tooth: Bridging Biology in Material Sciences - Grant #1 P20 DE017460

  • Principal Investigator: Malcolm L. Snead, D.D.S., Ph.D.
  • Sponsor: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
  • Period: January 27, 2006 to July 31, 2006
  • Goal: The major goal of this project is to create a Concept Development Plan that details and prioritizes specific processes, procedures and projects to achieve tooth regeneration and outlines the organizational structure, including the environment for promoting interdisciplinary and collaborative basic and translational applied research needed for the U54 program.
  1. Moshaverinia A, Xu X, Chen C, Ansari S, Zadeh HH, Snead ML, Shi S. (2014) Application of stem cells derived from the periodontal ligament or gingival tissue sources for tendon tissue regeneration. Biomaterials. 2014 Mar;35(9):2642-50. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.12.053. Epub 2014 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 24397989; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3929697.

  2. Chavez MG, Yu W, Biehs B, Harada H, Snead ML, Lee JS, Desai TA, Klein OD. (2013) Characterization of dental epithelial stem cells from the mouse incisor with two-dimensional and three-dimensional platforms. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2013 Jan;19(1):15-24. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2012.0232. Epub 2012 Aug 16. PubMed PMID: 22742471; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3522131.

  3. Yazici H, Fong H, Wilson B, Oren EE, Amos FA, Zhang H, Evans JS, Snead ML, Sarikaya M, Tamerler C. (2013) Biological response on a titanium implant-grade surface functionalized with modular peptides. Acta Biomater. 2013 Feb;9(2):5341-52. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.11.004. Epub 2012 Nov 14. PubMed PMID: 23159566.

  4. Huang Z, Newcomb CJ, Zhou Y, Lei YP, Bringas P Jr, Stupp SI, Snead ML. (2013) The role of bioactive nanofibers in enamel regeneration mediated through integrin signals acting upon C/EBPα and c-Jun. Biomaterials. 2013 Apr;34(13):3303-14. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.01.054. Epub 2013 Feb 9. PubMed PMID: 23398885; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3600413.

  5. Gibson MP, Liu Q, Zhu Q, Lu Y, Jani P, Wang X, Liu Y, Paine ML, Snead ML, Feng JQ, Qin C. (2013) Role of the NH2 -terminal fragment of dentin sialophosphoprotein in dentinogenesis. Eur J Oral Sci. 2013 Apr;121(2):76-85. doi: 10.1111/eos.12020. Epub 2013 Feb 7. PubMed PMID: 23489896; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3602929.

  6. Moshaverinia A, Ansari S, Chen C, Xu X, Akiyama K, Snead ML, Zadeh HH, Shi S. (2013) Co-encapsulation of anti-BMP2 monoclonal antibody and mesenchymal stem cells in alginate microspheres for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2013 Sep;34(28):6572-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.05.048. Epub 2013 Jun 14.PubMed PMID: 23773817; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3715959.

  7. Moshaverinia A, Xu X, Chen C, Akiyama K, Snead ML, Shi S. (2013) Dental mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in an alginate hydrogel co-delivery microencapsulation system for cartilage regeneration. Acta Biomater. 2013 Dec;9(12):9343-50. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2013.07.023. Epub 2013 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 23891740; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3818395.

  8. Newcomb CJ, Bitton R, Velichko YS, Snead ML, Stupp SI. (2012) The role of nanoscale architecture in supramolecular templating of biomimetic hydroxyapatite mineralization. Small. 2012 Jul 23;8(14):2195-202, 2194. doi: 10.1002/smll.201102150. Epub 2012 May 8. PubMed PMID: 22570174; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3400347.

  9. Gungormus M, Oren EE, Horst JA, Fong H, Hnilova M, Somerman MJ, Snead ML, Samudrala R, Tamerler C, Sarikaya M. (2012) Cementomimetics-constructing a cementum-like biomineralized microlayer via amelogenin-derived peptides. Int J Oral Sci. 2012 Jun;4(2):69-77. doi: 10.1038/ijos.2012.40. Epub 2012 Jun 29. PubMed PMID: 22743342; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3412665.

  10. Lacruz RS, Smith CE, Bringas Jr P, Chen YB, Smith SM, Snead ML, Kurtz I, Hacia JG, Hubbard MJ, Paine ML. (2012) Identification of novel candidate genes involved in mineralization of dental enamel by genome-wide transcript profiling. J Cell Physiol. 2012 May;227(5):2264-75. doi: 10.1002/jcp.22965. PubMed PMID: 21809343; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3243804.

  11. Lacruz RS, Hacia JG, Bromage TG, Boyde A, Lei Y, Xu Y, Miller JD, Paine ML, Snead ML. (2012) The circadian clock modulates enamel development. J Biol Rhythms. 2012 Jun;27(3):237-45. doi: 10.1177/0748730412442830. PubMed PMID: 22653892; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3511783.

  12. Lacruz RS, Nakayama Y, Holcroft J, Nguyen V, Somogyi-Ganss E, Snead ML, White SN, Paine ML, Ganss B. (2012) Targeted overexpression of amelotin disrupts the microstructure of dental enamel. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35200. Epub 2012 Apr 23.PubMed PMID: 22539960; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3335167.

  13. Huang Z, Kim J, Lacruz RS, Bringas P Jr, Glogauer M, Bromage TG, Kaartinen VM, Snead ML. (2011) Epithelial-specific knockout of the Rac1 gene leads to enamel defects. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011 Dec;119 Suppl 1:168-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2011.00904.x. PubMed PMID: 22243243.

  14. Snead ML, Zhu DH, Lei Y, Luo W, Bringas PO Jr, Sucov HM, Rauth RJ, Paine ML, White SN. (2011) A simplified genetic design for mammalian enamel. Biomaterials. 2011 Apr;32(12):3151-7. Epub 2011 Feb 5. PubMed PMID: 21295848; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3045652.

  15. Jheon AH, Mostowfi P, Snead ML, Ihrie RA, Sone E, Pramparo T, Attardi LD, Klein OD. (2011) PERP regulates enamel formation via effects on cell-cell adhesion and gene expression. J Cell Sci. 2011 Mar 1;124(Pt 5):745-54. Epub 2011 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 21285247; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3039019.

  16. Tamburstuen MV, Reseland JE, Spahr A, Brookes SJ, Kvalheim G, Slaby I, Snead ML, Lyngstadaas SP. (2011) Ameloblastin expression and putative autoregulation in mesenchymal cells suggest a role in early bone formation and repair. Bone. 2011 Feb 1;48(2):406-13. Epub 2010 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 20854943.

  17. Lacruz RS, Lakshminarayanan R, Bromley KM, Hacia JG, Bromage TG, Snead ML,Moradian-Oldak J, Paine ML. (2011) Structural analysis of a repetitive protein sequence motif in strepsirrhine primate amelogenin. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 18;6(3):e18028. PubMed PMID: 21437261; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3060920.

  18. Wen X, Cawthorn WP, Macdougald OA, Stupp SI, Snead ML, Zhou Y. (2011) The influence of Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide on MSC fate by inducing Wnt10b expression. Biomaterials. 2011 Sep;32(27):6478-86. Epub 2011 Jun 12. PubMed PMID: 21663957;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3134126.

  19. Bromley KM, Lakshminarayanan R, Lei YP, Snead ML, Moradian-Oldak J. (2011) Folding, Assembly, and Aggregation of Recombinant Murine Amelogenins with T21I and P41T Point Mutations. Cells Tissues Organs. 2011;194(2-4):284-90. Epub 2011 May 2.PubMed PMID: 21540557; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3178092.

  20. Kémoun P, Gronthos S, Snead ML, Rue J, Courtois B, Vaysse F, Salles JP, Brunel G. (2011) The role of cell surface markers and enamel matrix derivatives on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal progenitor responses in vitro. Biomaterials. 2011 Oct;32(30):7375-88. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.06.043. Epub 2011 Jul 23. PubMed PMID: 21784516.

  21. Laksminarayanan R, Bromley KM, Lei YP, Snead ML, Moradian-Oldak J. (2010) Perturbed amelogenin secondary structure leads to uncontrolled aggregation in amelogenesis imperfecta mutant proteins. J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec 24;285(52):40593-603. Epub 2010 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 20929860; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3003358.

  22. Huang Z, Newcomb CJ, Bringas P Jr, Stupp SI, Snead ML. (2010) Biological synthesis of tooth enamel instructed by an artificial matrix. Biomaterials. 2010 Dec;31(35):9202-11. Epub 2010 Sep 24. PubMed PMID: 20869764; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2956865.

  23. Riksen EA, Stunes AK, Kalvik A, Gustafsson BI, Snead ML, Syversen U, Lyngstadaas SP, Reseland JE. (2010) Serotonin and fluoxetine receptors are expressed in enamel organs and LS8 cells and modulate gene expression in LS8 cells. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010 Dec;118(6):566-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2010.00778.x. Epub 2010 Sep 30. PubMed PMID: 21083617.

  24. Zhang H, Tompkins K, Garrigues J, Snead ML, Gibson CW, Somerman MJ. (2010) Full length amelogenin binds to cell surface LAMP-1 on tooth root/periodontium associated cells. Arch Oral Biol. 2010 Jun;55(6):417-25. Epub 2010 Apr 10. PubMed PMID: 20382373; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2886511.

  25. Buchko GW, Tarasevich BJ, Roberts J, Snead ML, Shaw WJ. (2010) A solution NMR investigation into the murine amelogenin splice-variant LRAP (Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Protein). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Sep;1804(9):1768-1774. Epub 2010 Mar 19. PubMed PMID: 20304108; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2910175.

  26. Rauth RJ, Potter KS, Ngan AY, Saad DM, Mehr R, Luong VQ, Schuetter VL, Miklus VG, Chang P, Paine ML, Lacruz RS, Snead ML, White SN. (2009) Dental enamel: genes define biomechanics. J Calif Dent Assoc. 37(12):863-8. PubMed PMID:20066874; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2825347.

  27. Lyngstadaas SP, Wohlfahrt JC, Brookes SJ, Paine ML, Snead ML, Reseland JE. (2009) Enamel matrix proteins; old molecules for new applications. Orthod Craniofac Res. 12(3):243-53. PubMed PMID: 19627527; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2825346.

  28. Snead ML, Slavkin HC. (2009) Science is the fuel for the engine of technology and clinical practice. J Am Dent Assoc. 140 Suppl 1:17S-24S. PubMed PMID:19723927.

  29. Warotayanont R, Frenkel B, Snead ML, Zhou Y. (2009) Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide induces osteogenesis by activation of the Wnt pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 387(3):558-63. PubMed PMID: 19615979; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2758297.

  30. Wen X, Zou Y, Luo W, Goldberg M, Moats R, Conti PS, Snead ML, Paine ML. (2008) Biglycan Overexpression on Tooth Enamel Formation in Transgenic Mice. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 291(10):1246-53. PubMed PMID: 18727043; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2562349.

  31. Snead ML. (2008) Whole-tooth regeneration: it takes a village of scientists, clinicians, and patients. J Dent Educ. 72(8):903-11. PubMed PMID: 18676799; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2546443.

  32. Paine ML, Snead ML, Wang HJ, Abuladze N, Pushkin A, Liu W, Kao LY, Wall SM, Kim YH, Kurtz I. (2008) Role of NBCe1 and AE2 in secretory ameloblasts. J Dent Res. 87(4):391-5. PubMed PMID: 18362326; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2504252.

  33. Huang Z, Sargeant T, Hulvat J, Mata A, Bringas P, Koh CY, Stupp S, Snead M. (2008) Bioactive Nanofibers Instruct Cells to Proliferate and Differentiate During Enamel Regeneration. J Bone Miner Res. 23(12):1995-2006. PubMed PMID: 18665793; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2686923.

  34. Warotayanont R, Zhu D, Snead ML, Zhou Y. (2008) Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide induces osteogenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 367(1):1-6. PubMed PMID: 18086559; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2276612.

  35. Zhou Y, Snead ML. (2008) Derivation of cranial neural crest-like cells from human embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 376(3):542-7. PubMed PMID: 18804450; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2574922.

  36. Zou Y, Wang H, Shapiro JL, Okamoto CT, Brookes SJ, Lyngstadaas SP, Snead ML, Paine ML. (2007) Determination of protein regions responsible for interactions of amelogenin with CD63 and LAMP1. Biochem J. 2007 Dec 15;408(3):347-54. PubMed PMID: 17708745; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2267358.

  37. White SN, Paine ML, Ngan AY, Miklus VG, Luo W, Wang H, Snead ML. (2007) Ectopic expression of dentin sialoprotein during amelogenesis hardens bulk enamel. J Biol Chem. 282(8):5340-5. PubMed PMID: 17189271.

  38. Xu Y, Zhou YL, Erickson RL, Macdougald OA, Snead ML. (2007) Physical dissection of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in regulating the mouse amelogenin gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 354(1):56-61. PubMed PMID: 17210130; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1831826.

  39. Xu Y, Zhou YL, Gonzalez FJ, Snead ML. (2007) CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta) maintains amelogenin expression in the absence of C/EBPalpha in vivo. J Biol Chem. 282(41):29882-9. PubMed PMID: 17704518.

  40. Pemberton TJ, Li FY, Oka S, Mendoza-Fandino GA, Hsu YH, Bringas P Jr, Chai Y, Snead ML, Mehrian-Shai R, Patel PI. (2007) Identification of novel genes expressed during mouse tooth development by microarray gene expression analysis. Dev Dyn. 236:2245-57. PubMed PMID: 17626284.

  41. Shapiro JL, Wen X, Okamoto CT, Wang HJ, Lyngstadaas SP, Goldberg M, Snead ML, Paine ML. (2007) Cellular uptake of amelogenin, and its localization to CD63, and Lamp1-positive vesicles. Cell Mol Life Sci. 64(2):244-56. PubMed PMID: 17187173.

  42. Xu Y, Zhou YL, Luo W, Zhu QS, Levy D, Macdougald OA, Snead ML. (2006) NF-Y and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha synergistically activate the mouse amelogenin gene. J Biol Chem. 281(23):16090-8

  43. Wang HJ, Tannukit S, Wen X, Shapiro JL, Snead ML, Paine ML. (2006) Using the yeast two-hybrid assay to discover protein partners for the leucine-rich amelogenin peptide and for tuftelin-interacting protein 11. Eur J Oral Sci. 114 Suppl 1:276-9.

  44. Xu Y, Zhou YL, Ann DK, MacDougald OA, Shum L, Snead ML. (2006) Transcription factor sumoylation and factor YY1 serve to modulate mouse amelogenin gene expression. Eur J Oral Sci. 114 Suppl 1:169-77; discussion 201-2, 381.

  45. Swanson EC, Fong HK, Foster BL, Paine ML, Gibson CW, Snead ML, Somerman MJ. (2006) Amelogenins regulate expression of genes associated with cementoblasts in vitro. Eur J Oral Sci. 114 Suppl 1:239-43; discussion 254-6, 381-2. PubMed PMID: 16674692.

  46. Bartlett JD, Ganss B, Goldberg M, Moradian-Oldak J, Paine ML, Snead ML, Wen X, White SN, Zhou YL. (2006) Protein-protein interactions of the developing enamel matrix. Curr Top Dev Biol. 74:57-115.

  47. Bartold PM, Xiao Y, Lyngstaadas SP, Paine ML, Snead ML. (2006) Principles and applications of cell delivery systems for periodontal regeneration. Periodontol 2000. 41:123-35. Review.

  48. Zhu D, Paine ML, Luo W, Bringas P Jr, Snead ML. (2006) Altering biomineralization by protein design. J Biol Chem. 281(30):21173-82. PubMed PMID: 16707492.

  49. Plikus MV, Zeichner-David M, Mayer JA, Reyna J, Bringas P, Thewissen JGM, Snead ML, Chai Y, Chuong CM. (2005) Morphoregulation of teeth: modulating the number, size, shape and differentiation by tuning Bmp activity. Evolution & Development 7:5, 440 -457

  50. Paine ML, Snead ML. (2005) Tooth developmental biology: disruptions to enamel-matrix assembly and its impact on biomineralization. Orthod Craniofac Res. 8(4):239-51. Review.

  51. Wang H, Tannukit S, Zhu D, Snead ML, Paine ML. (2005) Enamel matrix protein interactions. J Bone Miner Res. 20(6):1032-40.

  52. Wen X, Lei YP, Zhou YL, Okamoto CT, Snead ML, Paine ML. (2005) Structural organization and cellular localization of tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11). Cell Mol Life Sci. 62(9):1038-46.

  53. White SN, Miklus VG, Chang PP, Caputo AA, Fong H, Sarikaya M, Luo W, Paine ML, Snead ML. (2005) Controlled failure mechanisms toughen the dentino-enamel junction zone. J Prosthet Dent. 94(4):330-5.

  54. Paine ML, Luo W, Wang HJ, Bringas P Jr, Ngan AY, Miklus VG, Zhu DH, Macdougall M, White SN, Snead ML. (2005) Dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein over-expression during amelogenesis. J Biol Chem. 280(36):31991-8

  55. Shaw WJ, Campbell AA, Paine ML, Snead ML. (2004) The COOH Terminus of the Amelogenin, LRAP, Is Oriented Next to the Hydroxyapatite Surface. J Biol Chem. 279(39):40263-6

  56. Paine ML, Zhu DH, Luo W, Snead ML. (2004) Overexpression of TRAP in the Enamel Matrix Does Not Alter the Enamel Structural Hierarchy. Cells Tissues Organs, 176:7-16.

  57. Luo W, Wen X, Wang HJ, MacDougall M, Snead ML, Paine ML. (2004) In vivo overexpression of tuftelin in the enamel organic matrix. Cells Tissues Organs. 177(4):212-20.

  58. Paine ML, Wang HJ and Snead M L. (2003) Amelogenin Self-Assembly and the Role of the Proline Located within the Carboxyl-Teleopeptide. Connective Tissue Research, 44(Suppl. 1): 52-57.

  59. Paine ML, Wang HJ and Snead ML. (2003) Amelogenin Self-Assembly and the Role of the Proline Located within the Carboxyl-Teleopeptide. Connective Tissue Research, 44(Suppl. 1): 52-57.

  60. Paine ML, Wang HJ, Luo W, Krebsbach PH, Snead ML. (2003) A transgenic animal model resembling amelogenesis imperfecta related to ameloblastin over-expression. J Biol Chem 278:19447-52

  61. Fong H, White SN, Paine ML, Luo W, Snead ML, Sarikaya M. (2003) Enamel structure properties controlled by engineered proteins in transgenic mice. J Bone Miner Res. 18(11):2052-9

  62. Paine ML, Luo W, Zhu DH, Bringas P Jr, Snead ML. (2003) Functional domains for amelogenin revealed by compound genetic defects. J Bone Miner Res;18(3):466-72

  63. Wu LY, Li M, Hinton DR, Guo L, Jiang S, Wang JT, Zeng A, Xie JB, Snead M, Shuler C, Maxson RE Jr, Liu YH. (2003) Microphthalmia Resulting from Msx2-Induced Apoptosis in the Optic Vesicle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44, 2404-2412.

  64. Snead ML. (2003) Amelogenin protein exhibits a modular design: implications for form and function. Connect Tissue Res. 2003;44 Suppl 1:47-51.

  65. Jitpukdeebodintra S., Chai Y., and Snead ML. (2002) Developmental patterning of the circumvallate papilla. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 46, 755-763.

  66. Dunglas C, Septier D, Paine ML, Zhu DH, Snead ML, Goldberg M. (2002) Ultrastructure of Forming Enamel in Mouse Bearing a Transgene That Disrupts the Amelogenin Self-Assembly Domains. Calcif Tissue Int 71(2):155-66

  67. Paine ML, Lei YP, Dickerson K, Snead ML. (2002) Altered Amelogenin Self-assembly Based on Mutations Observed in Human X-linked Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AIH1). J Biol Chem 10;277(19):17112-6

  68. Paine ML, White SN, Luo W, Fong H, Sarikaya M, Snead ML (2001) Regulated gene expression dictates enamel structure and tooth function. Matrix Biol 20(5-6):273-92

  69. White SN, Luo W, Paine ML, Fong H, Sarikaya M, Snead ML (2001) Biological organization of hydroxyapatite crystallites into a fibrous continuum toughens and controls anisotropy in human enamel. J Dent Res 80(1):321-6

  70. White SN, Paine ML, Luo W, Sarikaya M, Fong H, Yu Z, Li ZC, Snead ML (2000) The dentino-enamel junction is a broad transitional zone uniting dissimilar bioceramic composites. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 238-240.

  71. Paine ML, Zhu DH, Luo W, Bringas P Jr, Goldberg M, White SN, Lei YP, Sarikaya M, Fong HK, Snead ML (2000) Enamel biomineralization defects result from alterations to amelogenin self-assembly. J Struct Biol 132(3):191-200

  72. Moradian-Oldak J, Paine ML, Lei YP, Fincham AG, Snead ML (2000) Self-assembly properties of recombinant engineered amelogenin proteins analyzed by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. J Struct Biol 131(1):27-37

  73. Paine CT, Paine ML, Luo W, Okamoto CT, Lyngstadaas SP, Snead ML (2000). A tuftelin-interacting protein (2000) localizes to the apical secretory pole of mouse ameloblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 21;275(29):22284-92.

  74. Fong H, Sarikaya M, White SN, Snead ML (2000) Nano-mechanical properties profiles across dentin-enamel junction of human incisor teeth. Mater. Sci. Eng.-C. 7, 119-128.

  75. Zhou YL, Lei Y, Snead ML (2000) Functional antagonism between Msx2 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in regulating the mouse amelogenin gene expression is mediated by protein-protein interaction. J Biol Chem 275:29066-75

  76. Zhou YL, Snead ML. (2000) Identification of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha as a transactivator of the mouse amelogenin gene. J Biol Chem;275(16):12273-80

  77. Jaskoll T, Luo W, Snead ML (1998) Msx-2 expression and glucocorticoid-induced overexpression in embryonic mouse submandibular glands. J. Craniofacial Genet. Dev. Biol. 18(2):79-87.

  78. Paine CT, Paine ML, Snead ML (1998) Identification of tuftelin- and amelogenin-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Connect Tissue Res 1998;38(1-4):257-67;discussion 295-303

  79. Liu YH, Snead ML, Maxson RE Jr (1998) Transgenic mouse models of craniofacial disorders. Methods Mol Biol 2000;137:499-512

  80. Snead ML, Paine ML, Luo W, Zhu DH, Yoshida B, Lei YP, Chen LS, Paine CT, Burstein JM, Jitpukdeebudintra S, White SN, Bringas P Jr (1998) Transgene Animal Model for Protein Expression and Accumulation into forming Enamel. Connective Tissue Research 38(1-4), pp. 279-286.

  81. Fincham AG, Baehner R, Chai Y, Crowe DL, Fincham C, Iskandar M, Landesman HM, Lee M, Luo W, Paine M, Pereira L, Moradian-Oldak J, Roseblum A, Snead ML, Thompson P, Wuenschell CW, Zeichner-David M, Shuler CF (1997) Problem-based Learning at the University of Southern California, School of Dentistry: A term report. J. Dent.Ed. 61: 417-425.

  82. Liu YH, Ma L, Kundu R, Ignelzi M, Sangiorgi F, Wu L, Luo W, Snead ML, Maxson R (1996) Function of the Msx2 gene in the morphogenesis of the skull. Ann NY Acad Sci. 8:785:48-58.

  83. Snead ML, Paine ML, Chen LS, Yoshida B, Luo W, Zhou D, Lei YP, Liu YH, Maxson RE (1996) The murine amelogenin promoter: Developmentally regulated expression in transgenic animals. Conn. Tiss. Res. 35:1-4, pp. 41-47.

  84. Snead ML, Paine ML, Chen LS, Yoshida B, Luo W, Zhu DH, Lei YP, Liu YH, Maxson RE (1996) The murine amelogenin promoter: Developmentally regulated expression in transgenic animals. Conn. Tiss. Res. 35:1-4, pp. 41-47.

  85. Liu YH, Kundu R, Wu L, Luo W, Ignelzi MA Jr, Snead ML, Maxson RE Jr (1995) Premature suture closure and ectopic cranial bone in mice expressing Msx2 transgenes in the developing skull. Dev. Bio. 92:6137-6141.

  86. Liu YH, Ma L, Kundo R, Luo W, Snead ML, Maxson R (1994) Defining the minimal promoter of MSX2 required for apical ectodermal ridge expression by transgenic animals. Mech. In Dev. 48:187-97.

  87. Liu YH, Ma L, Kundo R, Luo W, Snead ML, Maxson R (1994) Regulation of the Msx2 homeobox gene during mouse embryogenesis: A transgene with 439 bp of 5 flanking sequence is expressed exclusively in the apical ectodermal ridge of the developing limb. Mechanisms in Development 48:187-197.

  88. Jabs EW, Muller U, Li X, Ma L, Luo W, Haworth I., Klisak IL, Sparkes R, Warman ML, Mulliken JB, Snead ML, Maxson R (1993) A mutation in the homeodomain of the human MSX2 gene in a family affected with autosomal dominant craniosynostosis. Cell 75:443-450.

  89. Bell JR, Noveen A, Liu YH, Ma L, Dobias S, Kundo R, Luo W, Xia Y, Lusis AJ, Snead ML, Maxson R (1993) Genomic structure, chromosomal location, and evolution of the mouse HOX 8 gene. Genomics 16: 123-131.

  90. Shum L, Sakakura Y, Bringas P Jr, Luo W, Snead ML, Mayo M, Crohin C, Millar S, Werb Z, Buckley S (1993) EGF abrogation-induced fusilli-form dysmorphogenesis of Meckels cartilage during embryonic mouse mandibular morphogenesis in vitro. Development. 118(3):903-17.

  91. Raaberg L, Nexo E, Buckley S, Luo W, Snead ML, Warburton D (1992) Epidermal growth factor: a novel autocrine mechanism in rat type II pheumocytes. Am. J. Respiratory Cell and Molecular. 6:44-49.

  92. Snead ML, Luo W, Hsu D, Melrose RJ, Lau EC, Stenman G (1992) Human ameloblastoma tumors express the amelogenin gene. Oral Surg. Oral Med. And Oral Path. 74:64-72.

  93. Chen LS, Couwenhoven RI, Hsu D, Luo W, Snead ML (1992) Maintenance of amelogenin gene expression by transformed epithelial cells of mouse enamel organ. Archs Oral Biol. 37:771-778.

  94. Kidd VJ, Luo W, Xiang J, Tu F, Easton J, McCune S, Snead ML (1991) Regulated expression of a cell division control-related protein kinase during development. Cell Growth and Differentiation. 2:85-93.

  95. Couwenhoven R, Luo W, Rall LB, Snead ML (1990) Co-Localization of EGF transcripts and peptides by combined immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. J. Histochem. And Cytochem. 38:1853-1857.

  96. Luo W, Slavkin HC, Snead ML (1990) Cells from Hertwigs epithelial root sheath do not transcribe amelogenin. J. Perio. Res. 26:42-47.

  97. Slavkin HC, Sasano Y, Kikunaga S, Bessem C, Bringas P Jr, Mayo M, Luo W, Mak G, Rall L, Snead ML (1990) Cartilage, bone and tooth induction during early embryonic mouse mandibular morphogenesis using serumless, chemically-defined medium. Conn. Tiss. Res. 24:4-51.

  98. Snead ML, Luo W, Oliver P, Nakamura M, Don-Wheeler G, Bessem C, Bell GI, Rall LB, Slavkin HC (1989) Localization of epidermal growth factor precursor in tooth and lung during embryonic mouse development. Dev. Biol. 134(2):420-429.

  99. Amar S, Luo W, Snead ML, Ruch JV (1989) Amelogenin gene expression in mouse incisor heterotypic recombinations. Differentiation. 41:72-77.

  100. Luo W, Lau EC, Mostofi R, Roop D, Slavkin HC, Snead ML (1988) Gene expression in human ameloblastoma. J. Dent. Res. (special issue) 67:265.

  101. Luo W, Roop DR, Lau EC, Melrose RJ, Mostofi R, Snead ML (1988) In situ hybridization analysis of keratin gene expression in human ameloblastoma. J. Oral Path. 17:534-540.

  102. Snead ML, Luo W, Rall LB, Bell GI, Slavkin HC (1988) Localization of PreProEGF messenger RNA in developing mouse molars using oligodeoxynucleotide probes. J. Dent. Res. 67:1830. Abstract.

  103. Snead ML, Luo W, Lau EC, Slavkin HC (1988) Spatial-and temporal-restricted pattern for amelogenin gene expression during mouse molar tooth organogenesis. Development. 104:77-85.

  104. Slavkin HC, Snead ML, Zeichner-David M, MacDougall M, Fincham A, Lau EC, Luo W, Nakamura M, Oliver P, Evans, J (1988) Factors influencing expression of dental ECM biomineralization. In: Cell and Molecular Biology of Hard Tissues (eds. G. Roden and A. Caplan), Vol. 12 (Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 135). pp. 22-41.

  105. Luo W, Kidd V, Humphreys-Beher M, Slavkin HC, Snead ML (1987) Expression of 4 beta galactosyltransferase mRNA in ectoderm-dervied cells of the developing mouse submandibular gland. J. Cell Biology. 105:49a. Abstract.